Voice & Data Wiring

Voice & Data Wiring

A Structured Cabling System includes all wire and connectivity products that relate to voice, data, video, security, and any other building management system. Telecommunications cabling falls under this category and includes all backbone cabling and horizontal cabling infrastructure. The best practice is to follow EIA/TIA 568 specifications while planning and installing these systems for commercial buildings.

 

Telecommunications equipment connects horizontal and backbone cables to an equipment room. Backbone cabling connects telecom equipment rooms together. Horizontal cabling then runs from each equipment room to their final destination.

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Low Voltage Wiring

Low Voltage Wiring

Every structured cabling solution includes low voltage wiring. Horizontal cabling uses low voltage wiring to connect the telecommunications enclosure to that floor's LAN wall plates. Backbone cabling is always considered low voltage and requires proper planning to implement correctly. A Patch panel connects data cabling between telecommunications rooms which are called IDF or MDF.

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Fiber Optic Wiring

Fiber Optic Wiring

The backbone of any structured cabling solution is Fiber-Optic wiring. Cabling infrastructure best practice is for it to connect data centers or an equipment room. Sometimes copper cabling is ran as a backup just in case the fiber fails because it is sensitive.

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FAQ

 

A Structured cabling system installation is an organized approach to cabling infrastructure based on standards.

 

Structured cabling systems consisting of patch panels and backbones are structured in a way to enable final hardware ports to be connected to the patch panels via patch cords from network switches. This patch panel is then connected to the main trunk or backbone usually with fiber-optic wiring.

 

Fiber-Optic, Coaxial, and twisted pair.

 

The 6 sub-systems of structured cabling solutions are Entrance Facilities, Equipment Room, Backbone cabling, Telecommunications Room or Telecommunications enclosure, Horizontal Cabling, and work area.

 

First, the structured cabling system standards we go by:

 

Based on ANSI/TIA-568-C.0 (Generic Telecommunications Cabling), which is used for generic infrastructures, and ANSI/TIA-568-C.1 (Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard) there are 6 structured cabling subsystems.

 

1. Entrance Facilities (EF)

These are located in the MDF or main distribution frame or in their own small area dedicated to this specifically. Entrance facilities are where the protection devices, and connections to the internet access provider reside. This is where the building connects to the outside world.

 

2. Equipment Room (ER)

These are climate-controlled spaces often located in an MDF or main distribution frame where horizontal cabling meets the backbone. Other telecommunications rooms or enclosures (IDFs or Intermediate distribution frame) will all connect back to the MDF via backbone wiring.

 

3. Backbone Cabling

Fiber-Optic, coaxial, or twisted pair backbone cabling connects telecom rooms and Entrance facilities / Access Provider areas.

 

4. Telecommunications Room (TR) and Telecommunications Enclosure (TE)

This houses the horizontal and backbone cables that connect hardware endpoints. This includes patch cords, patch panels and is commonly located in MDFs or IDFs. A telecommunications enclosure is generally a small wall-mounted network rack housing a small amount of equipment where a full room is not warranted.

 

5. Horizontal Cabling – (Cabling Subsystem 1)

This system runs from the work area's network endpoints to the telecom room or enclosure. It includes all wiring, terminations, jumpers, and patch cords. The horizontal structured cabling system connects to your network switches.

 

6. Work Area

A work area is where the horizontal cabling endpoints are located. For example, your computer connects to the work area's telecommunications outlet. This outlet is the endpoint of the horizontal cabling subsystem.

The best practice is to include 2 telecom outlets per work area.

 

Structured cabling standards include 3 categories:

 

Installation, Testing, and distance of cabling.

 

Any data cabling company with experience on telecommunication projects has a Fluke testing tool with OTDR for structured cabling systems testing.

 

Structured cabling solutions planning is the most critical step of a project. From hardware ports to horizontal cabling system design, the installation needs to follow a detailed plan.

 

One of the benefits of a structured cabling system is the ability to go any distance with the right design. Horizontal cabling is usually restricted to about 300ft. When you combine that with a backbone you can go an unlimited distance.

 

A structured cabling system enables the communication between the devices used inside of your building. Everything from phones, network connectivity, to security are covered under it.

 

Category 3, Category 5e, Category 6 or Category 6A cabling is common for horizontal cable / horizontal cross-connect as well as backbone.

 

The best practice for backbone wiring specifically is multi-mode fiber cabling or single mode.

 

Coaxial may also be used as a backbone cable.

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